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BIODIVERSITY REFERENCE


Index to the kingdom FUNGI



This page lists entries in the kingdom Fungi. For the convenience of users, organisms that functionally are fungi, but which belong in the kingdoms Chromista and Protozoa, are also listed below.
Classification follows P.M. Kirk et al. (2008), Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed., CAB International, Wallingford, which updates and continues the major changes in classification adopted in the 9th edition of the same work (2001). This classification differs from earlier treatments in a number of ways, as a result of ultrastructural and DNA studies. These have confirmed suspicions that simple classifications based on gross morphology often do not reflect evolutionary relationships. Expect further substantial changes as phylogenetic lineages become clearer in the next few years.

The classification, as listed below, includes the more important taxonomic groupings (phyla, subphyla, major classes), irrespective of whether there are current, illustrative pages. Photographs that will fill several of these gaps await scanning from original slides. The previous history of this site on a University educational server has restricted the number of entries, but I now hope to add further entries from many years of fungal photographs, film and digital.

Recently there has been a plethora of newly made-up "common" names for the larger fungi, often differing from one popular guide to another, some potentially misleading and most not yet a medium of communication. As accurate naming of fungi requires a precision provided only by the international scientific names, only a few of the better founded are included below.

  (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)  (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
                                        
Kingdom: Fungi
 
 Phylum: Zygomycota   (bread-moulds, etc.)
 Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
 Three orders, currently not assigned to classes
 Order: Mucorales
 Mucor brunneogriseus
 Rhizopus arrhizus
 
 Subphylum: Entomophthoromycotina
No current entries
 
 Subphylum: Kickxellomycotina
No current entries
 
 Subphylum: Zoopagomycotina
No current entries
 
 
 Phylum: Microsporidia   (parasitic organisms previously placed in the Kingdom Protozoa)
No current entries
 
 
 Phylum: Glomeromycota   (include important soil fungi that form vesicular-arbuscula mycorrhizas)
No current entries
 
 
 Phylum: Chytridiomycota   (chytrids)
 Class: Chytridiomycetes
 Order: Chytridiales
 Synchytrium taraxaci   (on a Dandelion, Taraxacum boekmanii)
 
 Class: Monoblepharidomycetes
No current entries
 
 
 Phylum: Ascomycota   (cup-fungi, flask-fungi, etc.)  [see also below for Anamorphic fungi]
 Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
 Class: Pezizomycetes   (operculate cup-fungi)
No current entries
 
 Class: Leotiomycetes
 Order: Erysiphales   (powdery mildews)    [profile] substantially updated, reflecting current taxonomy, April 2015
 Arthrocladiella mougeotii  (= Microsphaera mougeotii)   (on Duke of Argyll's Teaplant, Lycium barbarum)
 Erysiphe flexuosa  (= Uncinula flexuosa)   (on Horse-chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum)
 Erysiphe platani  (= Microsphaera platani)   (on London Plane, Platanus x hispanicus)
 Golovinomyces sonchicola   (on Smooth Sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus)
 Neoërysiphe galeopsidis  (= Erysiphe galeopsidis)   (on Henbit Dead-nettle, Lamium amplexicaule; White Dead-nettle, L. album)
 Phyllactinia fraxini   (on Ash, Fraxinus excelsior)
 Podosphaera plantaginis  (= Sphaerotheca plantaginis)   (on Ribwort Plantain, Plantago lanceolata)
 
 Order: Helotiales   (majority of inoperculate cup-fungi)
 Heyderia abietis
 Monilinia johnsonii
 Unguiculariopsis lettaui   (on Evernia prunastri)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Order: Leotiales   ("jelly cup-fungi")
No current entries
 
 Order: Rhytismatales   (tar-spots)
 Rhytisma salicinum   (on Goat Sallow, Salix caprea subsp. caprea)
 
 Class: Lecanoromycetes   (lichenised fumgi and many lichenicolous fungi)  [see below for lichens]
 Order: Lecanorales
 Nesolechia oxyspora   (on Parmelia omphalodes)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Order: Ostropales
 Spirographa fusisporella   (on Pertusaria corallina)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Class: Dothidiomycetes
 Order: Capnodiales
 Stigmidium microspilum   (on Graphis scripta)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 "incertae sedis"   (systematic position within the class uncertain)
 Homostegia piggottii   (on Parmelia saxatilis)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Class: Eurotiomycetes
 Order: Onygenales
 Onygena equina   (warning - a touch gruesome)
 
 Class: Sordariomycetes   (majority of perithecial ascomycetes)
 Order: Hypocreales
 Illosporiopsis christiansenii   (on Physcia tenella)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 "incertae sedis"   (systematic position within the subphylum uncertain)
 Abrothallus welwitschii   (on Sticta limbata)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Subphylum: Saccharomycotina   (yeasts)
No current entries
 
 Subphylum: Taphrinomycotina   (plant parasites causing "blisters" and "leaf curls")
No current entries
 
 
 Phylum: Basidiomycota
 Subphylum: Agaricomycotina   (most larger fungi, e.g. toadstools, puffballs, bracket fungi)
 Class: Agaricomycetes
 Order: Agaricales   (toadstools, fairy-clubs, puffballs)
 Now a large order, subdivided here into artificial morphological groups that correspond to traditional concepts :
 
 a) "agaricoid" (toadstools)
 Agrocybe rivulosa
 Arrhenia peltigerina   (on Peltigera hymenina)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Conocybe
 Dermoloma cuneifolium
 Galerina paludosa
 Hygrocybe calyptriformis  (Ballerina Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe chlorophana  (Golden Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe coccinea  (Scarlet Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe irrigata  (Slimy Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe laeta  (Heath Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe psittacina  (Parrot Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe quieta  (Oily Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe spadicea  (Date Waxcap)
 Hygrocybe virginea  (Snowy Waxcap)
 Lichenomphalia alpina   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 Lichenomphalia hudsoniana   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 Lichenomphalia umbellifera   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 Lichenomphalia velutina   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 
 b) "clavarioid" (fairy-clubs)
 Clavaria
 Clavulinopsis
 
 c) "gasteroid" (true puffballs)
 Calvatia gigantea  (Giant Puffball)
 Lycoperdon nigrescens  (Dusky Puffball)
 
 Order: Atheliales
 Athelia arachnoidea   (on Physcia tenella)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Order: Boletales   (boletes, earthballs and their allies)
 Boletus erythropus  (B. luridiformis)
 
 Order: Cantharellales   (including Ceratobasidiales)   (chanterelles, also some notable microfungal parasites of lichens)
 Marchandiomyces aurantiacus   (on Physcia tenella)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Marchandiomyces corallinus   (on Parmelia sulcata, Physcia aipolia)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Order: Phallales   (stinkhorns, earthstars and certain other gasteromycetes)
 Geastrum triplex  (Collared Earthstar)
 
 Order: Russulales   (russules, milkcaps and some 'corticioid' fungi)
 Stereum hirsutum
 Russula emetica  (Sickener)
 
 Class: Dacrymycetes
No current entries
 
 Class: Tremellomycetes
 Order: Tremellales   (jelly fungi)
 Biatoropsis usnearum   (on Usnea ssp.)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Syzygospora physciacearum   (on Physcia aipolia)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Tremella lichenicola   (on Violella fucata)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
 Class: Microbotryomycetes
 Order: Microbotryales   (pucciniomycetaceous smuts)
 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (agg.)   (on Red Campion, Silene dioica)   (includes Microbotryum silenes-dioicae)
 Microbotryum violaceum  (= Ustilago violacea)   (on Ragged Robin, Silene flos-cuculi, and Nottingham Catchfly, Silene nutans)
 
 Class: Pucciniomycetes    (formerly Urediniomycetes)
 Order: Pucciniales   (rusts, formerly Uredinales)    [profile]
 Cumminsiella mirabilissima aecial, uredinial and telial stages/spores   (on Oregon-grape, Mahonia aquifolium)
 Gymnosporangium clavariiforme aecial stage   (on Hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna)
 Melampsora populnea aecial stage   (on Dog's Mercury, Mercurialis perennis)
 Puccinia calcitrapae uredinial and telial stages/spores   (on Melancholy Thistle, Cirsium heterophyllum)
 Puccinia graminis aecia, telia, teliospores   (on Barberry, Berberis vulgaris, and Cock's-foot Grass, Dactylis glomerata)
 Puccinia violae telial stage   (on Hairy Violet, Viola hirta)
 Uromyces limonii aecial stage   (on Lax-flowered Sea-lavender, Limonium humile)
 
 Subphylum: Ustilaginomycotina
 Class: Exobasidiomycetes
 Order: Exobasidiales   ('redleaf' galls)
 Exobasidium vaccinii   (on Cowberry, Vaccinium vitis-idaea)
 
 Class: Ustilaginomycetes   (true smuts)
No current entries
 
 
 Anamorphic fungi ('Deuteromycota')
Asexually reproducing fungi. The great majority of such fungi are known to belong to the Ascomycota, but are listed under this heading for convenience, in informal categories.
 agonomycetes
 Anthina flammea
 
 coelomycetes
 Camarographium stephensii   (on Bracken, Pteridium aquilinum)
 Lichenoconium xanthoriae   (on Xanthoria parietina)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Vouauxiella lichenicola   (on Lecanora chlarotera)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Vouauxiella verrucosa   (on Lecanora campestris)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 hyphomycetes
 Alternaria tenuissima   (on Cow Parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris)
 Botrytis cinerea   (on Strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa, time sequence)
 Kalchbrenneriella cyanescens   (on Usnea sp.)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Penicillium
 Phaeosporobolus alpinus   (on Lecanora aitema)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Sclerococcum sphaerale   (on Pertusaria corallina)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 Torula herbarum   (on Stinging Nettle, Urtica dioica)
 Xanthoriicola physciae   (on Xanthoria parietina)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org: lichenicolous fungi)
 
 
 
Lichenised fungi ('Mycophycophyta')
Lichens, i.e. fungi that form organised mutualistic partnerships with either green algae (Chlorophyta) or blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), or in a few cases with both at the same time.
Virtually all such fungi truly belong in the phylum Ascomycota, but their lichenised nature gives them a fundamentally different morphology and ecology and it is convenient to treat them separately. They are covered in the companion site to this one and so not given separate treatment here. The following are a few, selected, representatative species on that site. For a full list, go here.
 pyrenocarpous lichens:
 Collemopsidium foveolatum   (on Acorn Barnacle, Chthamalus montagui)   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 leprose lichens:    [profile]
 Lepraria incana   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 filamentous lichens:    [profile]
 Cystocoleus ebeneus   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 crustose lichens:    [profile]
 Gyalecta ulmi   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)   British Red Data Book species: endangered
 Lecidea silacea   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 squamulose lichens:    [profile]
 Cladonia diversa   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 foliose lichens:    [profile]
 Heterodermia leucomela   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)   British Red Data Book species: endangered
 Lobaria pulmonaria   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 Parmelia sulcata   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 Xanthoria parietina   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 fruticose lichens:    [profile]
 Teloschistes flavicans   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)   British Red Data Book species: vulnerable
 Usnea florida   (at www.lichens.lastdragon.org)
 
 
Kingdom: Chromista
Only "fungal" chromists are listed here.
 
 Phylum: Oomycota   (blights, downy mildews and water-moulds)
 Class: Oomycetes
 Order: Pythiales
 Phytophthora infestans  (late potato blight)
 
 Phylum: Hyphochytriomycota   (chromistan chytrids)
No current entries
 
 Phylum: Labyrinthulomycota   (labyrinthids and thraustochytrids)
No current entries
 
 
Kingdom: Protozoa (plus Excavata)
The following phyla are those considered "fungal". Classification is variable and unstable.
 
 Phylum: Percolozoa   [kingdom or major grouping Excavata]
 Class: Heterolobosea
 Order: Acrasida (Acrasiomycota)   (acrasid cellular slime-moulds)
No current entries
 
 Phylum: Amoebozoa
 Subphylum: Mycetozoa   (slime moulds)
 Class: Dictyostelia (Dictyosteliomycetes)   (cellular slime-moulds)
No current entries
 
 Class: Myxogastria   (plasmodial slime-moulds)
 Mucilago crustacea
 unknown myxomycete (immature)
 
 Phylum: Plasmodiophoromycota   (plasmodiophorids)
Fungus-like parasites of plants and fungi, their placement in the Protozoa uncertain.
No current entries; see link below for key site
 


Fungal Image Links

Introduction to the Fungi
(UC Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley)
Good but brief accounts, not much yet on the individual fungal phyla.

Tom Volk's Fungi
(Tom Volk, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse)
Major compendium of all things mycological, including large image collection with explanatory accounts. An excellent resource.

Fungi Images on the Net
(Flemming V. Larsen)
A substantial index of Internet fungal images (Basidiomycota, Ascomycota). This site links directly to the original images, and while the original URLs and copyright information are quoted, other information is missing and it is better to consider this site as a specialist search engine. 'Parasitising' other servers (hotlinking) is generally an Internet sin but it seems that permission for such links has mostly (but not always) been obtained.

MushroomExpert.Com
(Michael Kuo & others)
A major American site dealing with the larger fungi.
Includes illustrated keys beginning at http://www.mushroomexpert.com/major_groups.html.

Pilze, Pilze, Pilze
Important information site on the larger fungi, in German.
Includes a large and excellent gallery of images at http://www.pilzepilze.de/galerie/main.php.

Pilz-Schnellsuche
Another major German fungal image site, not only for the larger fungi but also for rusts, smuts and powdery mildews, again with excellent images.

Obligat Phytoparasitische Kleinpilze
A large and excellent site dealing with phyto-pathogenic fungi.

RogersMushrooms
(Roger Phillips)
Based around his well known photographic identification guides.

MycoNormandie
A French site with a large gallery of excellent images of the larger fungi, including the larger ascomycetes.

BioLib.cz: Fungi
A Czech site with many excellent images, covering not only the larger fungi but also other fungal groups. The link is to the English language version.
Part of a much larger biodiversity and image site at http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonmain/id14772/.

Les champignons de Sept-Îles
(Raymond Boyer)
French-Canadian site with many photographs and descriptions.

Plasmodiophorid Home Page
(Ohio University)
Valuable compilation of information, including many images, on this group of plant pathogens.

Alan Silverside's Lichen Pages
(yes, my own companion site to ths one)
Photographs of mostly British lichens, plus links to other image sites, information on lichens and monitoring of air quality, etc.

Links last checked on or after 6th April 2015.
See general links page for other web sites relating to British conservation and biodiversity, including fungal recording.


 
A.J. Silverside, January 2011, last modified or updated May 2015
(first hosted at www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/bioref/, September 1998)
 
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