Index to the kingdom PLANTAE

As allowed by the current ICBN (see classification), "phylum" is used instead of "division". Ranks below phylum are used selectively here and are not comprehensive.

The Rhodophyta are accepted here as part of the plant kingdom rather than being in the Chromista (or Protoctista). A good review was provided by Ragan & Gutell (1995).
The classifications of the Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta used here follow van den Hoek et al. (1995). Some other authors prefer a broader view of the class Chlorophyceae. Orders in the Magnoliophytina now follow Stace (2010).

Kingdom: Plantae
 Phylum: Rhodophyta   (red algae)
 Class: Florideophyceae
 Order: Ceramiales
 Phycodrys rubens
 Phylum: Chlorophyta   (green algae)
 Class: Chlorophyceae
 Order: Chaetophorales
 Draparnaldia mutabilis
 Stigeoclonium  (? S. farctum)
 Order: Chlorococcales
 Pediastrum  (? P. boryanum)
 Order: Volvocales
 Class: Ulvophyceae
 Order: Codiolales
 Order: Ulvales
 Ulva prolifera    (= Enteromorpha prolifera)
 Class: Trentepohliophyceae
 Order: Trentepohliales
 Trentepohlia aurea & T. abietina    (1430 kb of images, will take some time to load)
 Class: Pleurastrophyceae
 Order: Pleurastrales
 Trebouxia   (as lichen phycobiont)
 Class: Zygnematophyceae
 Order: Desmidiales
 Micrasterias  (? M. americana)
 Order: Zygnematales
 Phylum: Bryophyta   (mosses, liverworts, etc.)
 Class: Anthocerotopsida   (hornworts)
No entries yet
 Class: Hepaticopsida   (liverworts)
 Order: Marchantiales
 Conocephalum conicum
 Preissia quadrata
 Class: Andreaeopsida   (granite mosses)
No entries yet
 Class: Sphagnopsida   (Sphagnum mosses)
No entries yet
 Class: Polytrichopsida   (hair-mosses)
 Order: Polytrichales
 Polytrichum commune
 Class: Bryopsida   (true mosses)
 Order: Orthotrichales
 Orthotrichum anomalum
 Order: Pottiales
 Syntrichia ruraliformis    (= Tortula ruraliformis)
 Tortula muralis
 Phylum: Tracheophyta   (vascular plants)
 Subphylum: Pteridophytina   (ferns and fern-allies)
 Class: Lycopodiopsida   (clubmosses, quillworts)
 Order: Lycopodiales
 Lycopodiella inundata   (Marsh Clubmoss)
 Lycopodium clavatum   (Stag's-horn Clubmoss)
 Class: Equisetopsida   (horsetails)
No entries yet
 Class: Polypodiopsida   (ferns)
No entries yet
 Subphylum: Coniferophytina   (gymnosperms)
No entries yet
 Subphylum: Magnoliophytina   (flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms)
 Class: Magnoliopsida   (dicotyledons)
 Order: Apiales
 Eryngium maritimum   (Sea Holly)
 Order: Caryophyllales
 Drosera   (sundews)
 Order: Ericales
 Primula veris   (Cowslip: account of heterostyly)
 Order: Lamiales
 Mimulus   (monkey-flowers: extended account) — page awaiting transfer/update
 Orobanche   (broomrapes: extended account)
 Order: Rosales
 Geum   (Wood & Water Avens: short account of hybridisation)
 Class: Liliopsida   (monocotyledons)
 Order: Asparagales   (orchids, irises, etc.)
 Ophrys apifera   (Bee Orchid)
 Order: Poales   (sedges, grasses)
 Ammophila arenaria   (Marram Grass)

Image links

Mosses and Liverworts in Wales
(Alan Hale)
Excellent set of pages on Welsh bryophytes, also with good habitat descriptions.

Photographs of liverworts
(D.S. Rycroft, University of Glasgow)
Some nice photographs, mostly Scottish.

Flora of Europe: a photographic herbarium
Photographs of European wild flowering plants.

Wild Flowers of the British Isles
(Peter Llewellyn)
Excellent and important reference site for photographs of British flowering plants, also with links to companion sites for Europe and Australia.

Floral Images
(J.R. Crellin)
"This site is all about flowers that grow in North-Western Europe - particularly the wild flowers of the British Isles." A large collection of photographs (also including a selection of bryphytes, lichens and fungi), organised by colour and by geography as well as by systematics and alphabetically. A valuable British resource.

British Wild Flowers
(John Somerville)
Another major compilation of photographs of British wild flowers, with contributions from other photographers. However, contributions in the more critical genera need to be vetted more carefully and the index seems to be common names only. The display is IE specific, with page arrangements incorrectly shown in Firefox without an addon being installed (so, based on my own current user statistics, that's about 40% of visitors who will not be able to see the site properly). On the other hand, there is a fine set of reference photographs for anyone interested in microspecies of Rubus (bramble) – a specialised but very valuable resource.

Irish Wildflowers
(Jenny Seawright)
A beautifully designed, authoritative and highly recommended site with many, many photographs carefully chosen to show key features. If only other websites were this good!

Belles Fleurs de France
(Erick Dronnet)
A large site with photographs and descriptions of the French flora.

University of Wisconsin-Madison: Plant Systematics Collection
Many images of American plants.

A Digital Flora of Newfoundland and Labrador Vascular Plants
(The Provincial Museum of Newfoundland and Labrador)
A beautiful site with many, many stunning images, including many species that we have in Britain.

Gallery of Connecticut Wildflowers
(Connecticut Botanical Society)
A good site for descriptions and illustrations of a large selection of American species – a valuable web flora.

Galleria Carnivora
An excellent and comprehensive if slightly quirky archive of photographs of carnivorous plants. Long one of my favourite sites.

Links last checked on or after 3rd February 2010.
See general links page for web sites relating to British conservation and biodiversity, including broader-scope plant and algalogical links.

•   Hoek, C. van den, Mann, D.G., & Jahns, H.M., (1995). Algae: an introduction to phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
•   Ragan, M.A., & Gutell, R.R., (1995). Are red algae plants? Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 118: 81-105.
•   Stace, C.A., (2010). New Flora of the British Isles, ed. 3, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

A.J. Silverside, February 2010, last updated April 2014
(first hosted at, September 1998)
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